Nagy (2020): Phylogenetic origins of Árpád Dynasty based on Y-DNA of Béla III

Miscellanea DNA in the News Nagy (2020): Phylogenetic origins of Árpád Dynasty based on Y-DNA of Béla III

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    Carlos Quiles

      Open Access Early Hungarians from Determination of the phylogenetic origins of the Árpád Dynasty based on Y chromosome sequencing of Béla the Third, by Nagy et al. Eur J Hum Genet (2020).


      We set out to identify the origins of the Árpád Dynasty based on genome sequencing of DNA derived from the skeletal remains of Hungarian King Béla III (1172–1196) and eight additional individuals (six males, two females) originally interred at the Royal Basilica of Székesfehérvár. Y-chromosome analysis established that two individuals, Béla III and HU52 assign to haplogroups R-Z2125 whose distribution centres near South Central Asia with subsidiary expansions in the regions of modern Iran, the Volga Ural region and the Caucasus. Out of a cohort of 4340 individuals from these geographic areas, we acquired whole-genome data from 208 individuals derived for the R-Z2123 haplogroup. From these data we have established that the closest living kin of the Árpád Dynasty are R-SUR51 derived modern day Bashkirs predominantly from the Burzyansky and Abzelilovsky districts of Bashkortostan in the Russian Federation. Our analysis also reveals the existence of SNPs defining a novel Árpád Dynasty specific haplogroup R-ARP. Framed within the context of a high resolution R-Z2123 phylogeny, the ancestry of the first Hungarian royal dynasty traces to the region centering near Northern Afghanistan about 4500 years ago and identifies the Bashkirs as their closest kin, with a separation date between the two populations at the beginning of the first millennium CE.

      R1a-Z2123 haplogroup distribution

      Prevalence of the R-Z2123 haplogroup (R1a1a1b2a2a1) based on 4340 modern samples from 40 different Eurasian populations (Table S1). The map was created using QGIS 3.8. Zanzibar [43]; circle size correlates with the size of the population tested; Blue slices in gray background represent the percentage of the R-Z2123 haplogroup in these populations.

      Carlos Quiles

        Göran Runström has commented this on the FTDNA Big Y Facebook Group:

        Michael Sager of FamilyTreeDNA has been analyzing the Y chromosomes of 7 male ancient genomes from the burial site of Hungarian King Béla III (1172–1196), including the king himself. This is from the paper that was just released earlier this week.

        Several changes could be made to the Y-DNA Haplotree, the great family tree of mankind, based on these new results:

        R1a-SUR51 split into R-SUR51>R-SUR52 (based on HU3B, HU52 and Ujvidek – modern sample from Novi Sad in Serbia)

        R1a-ARP5 added below R-SUR51 (based on HU3B, HU52 and Ujvidek)

        R1a-FT351000 added below R-ARP5 (based on HU3B – Bela III and HU52)

        R1b-FT333761 added below R-BY133391 (based on HU55 and Iberian HG02233 from 1000 Genomes)

        R1b-FT145844 added below R-BY3642 (based on HU4H and one FTDNA customer with unspecified origins)

        J1-ZS7626 split into J-ZS7630>J-ZS7626 (based on HU3G)

        Final haplogroup assignments:

        HU53: E-BY4992

        HU3G: J1-ZS7630

        Ujvidek: R1a-SUR51>ARP5

        HU3B: R1a-SUR51>ARP5>FT351000

        HU52: R1a-SUR51>ARP5>FT351000

        HU54: R1a-YP3929>Y42057

        HU4H: R1b-BY3642>FT145844

        HU55: R1b-FT333761

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